Transducer play a vital role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process ought to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another one.
It really is a device which converts one form of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical power is transformed into an electrical energy.
Kinds of transducer:
There are two types of transducers, they are: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Torque Transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electricity itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and more are the best examples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical energy by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for your Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect can be found in some materials (including quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied towards the structure, it produces an electric charge and, when an electric field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” is derived from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way round. Basically any sort of piezo mechanism may be called a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and for that reason are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are used in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The main benefit of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker is based on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness of the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging can also be based on piezoelectrics. In cases like this, the Miniature Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly raises the amplitude while reducing the input power concurrently, i.e. the device is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are often known as piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually employed to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are often operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors that are very commonly used for pressure sensing applications. They are sometimes used combined with piezo actuators to provide position feedback or force feedback, as an example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive signifies that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors do not generate a charge (energy) plus they cannot convert mechanical in electrical power and the other way around. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a good option for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be purchased when cutting edge performance is needed.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated under the right conditions, the most recent generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can also work for 10’s of huge amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a wonderful option for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is needed to provide the controller the proper information on how to counteract the mechanical vibration by providing the correct amplitude and phase output towards the piezo actuator. The sensor could even be considered a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any type of rapid actuation can cause vibrations in a work piece. In accordance with Newton’s laws, this means, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the more reactive forces it will cause. Just in case these forces are unwanted, an additional piezo mechanical system having a counter mass may be integrated and driven with a signal from the opposite phase. With a little fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel each other out as well as the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is frequently utilized in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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